Faces of like gold
Sally Ride (May 26, 1951-July 23, 2012)
Sally Ride was selected as one of NASA's first six female astronauts and began spaceflight training in 1978. While Ride shaped the future of space aeronautics on her first historic Challenger flight, she continued to influence the space program after her days of space travel were over. Ride served on the accident investigation boards set up in response to the two space shuttle tragedies — Challenger in 1986 and Columbia in 2003. In 2009, she participated in the Augustine committee that helped define NASA's spaceflight goals. Ride received the NCAA's Theodore Roosevelt Award, the NASA Space Flight Medal twice, was inducted into the National Women's Hall of Fame and the Astronaut Hall of Fame and received the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian award in the United States.
A. Philip Randolph (April 15, 1889 – May 16, 1979)
A. Philip Randolph’s continuous protests and agitation against unfair labor practices in relation to people of color eventually led President Franklin D. Roosevelt to issue Executive Order 8802 in 1941, banning discrimination in the defense industries during World War II. The group then successfully pressured President Harry S. Truman to issue Executive Order 9981 in 1948, ending segregation in the armed services. In 1963, Randolph was the head of the March on Washington, which was organized by Bayard Rustin, at which Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his "I Have A Dream" speech. Randolph inspired the "Freedom Budget", sometimes called the "Randolph Freedom budget", which aimed to deal with the economic problems facing the black community. He also formed the A. Philip Randolph Institute for community leaders to study the causes of poverty.
Barbara Gittings (July 31, 1932 – February 18, 2007)
Barbara Gittings organized the New York chapter of the Daughters of Bilitis (DOB)- the first lesbian civil and political rights organization in the United States. Gittings was mostly involved in the American Library Association, especially its gay caucus, in order to promote positive literature about homosexuality in libraries. She was also a part of the movement to get the American Psychiatric Association to drop homosexuality as a mental illness in 1972. Gittings also brought attention to the ban on employment of gay people by the largest employer in the US at that time: the United States government.
Daisy Bates (November 11, 1914 – November 4, 1999)
Daisy Bates was an editor for The Arkansas Weekly, one of the only African American newspapers solely dedicated to the Civil Rights Movement. For many years, she served as the President of the Arkansas chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Her work with the NAACP not only transformed the Civil Rights Movement but it also made Bates a household name. In 1954, the Supreme Court ruled segregated schools unconstitutional. After the ruling Bates began gathering African American students to enroll at all white schools. Often the white schools refused to let black students attend. Bates used her newspaper to publicize the schools who did follow the federal mandate. When the national NAACP office started to focus on Arkansas’ schools, they looked to Bates to plan the strategy. She organized the Little Rock Nine. Bates selected nine students to integrate Central High School in Little Rock in 1957. She regularly drove the students to school and worked tirelessly to ensure they were protected from violent crowds. Due to Bates’ role in the integration, she was often a target for intimidation. Rocks were thrown into her home several times and she received bullet shells in the mail.
Jeanette Rankin (June 11, 1880 – May 18, 1973)
Jeanette Rankin was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives by the state of Montana in 1916, and again in 1940. She remains the only woman elected to Congress from Montana. Rankin was also instrumental in initiating the legislation that eventually became the 19th Constitutional Amendment, granting unrestricted voting rights to women. In her victory speech, she recognized the power she held being the only woman able to vote in Congress. She championed the causes of gender equality and civil rights throughout a career that spanned more than six decades.
Sonia Sotomayor (June 25, 1954)
Sonia Sotomayor was born on June 25th 1954, in the Bronx, New York in a public housing project. Her parents, Juan and Celina Sotomayor were Puerto Ricans that came to New York during World War II. Sonia had a rough childhood, facing various obstacles. She was diagnosed with juvenile diabetes (Type I) when she was eight years old. Then her father died when she was nine years of age and her mother was left alone to raise her and her brother Juan. With all her achievements and recognitions, Sotomayor has also been highly criticized and had the majority of Senate Republicans oppose her nomination for Supreme Court Justice. She was under close observation and was attacked by critics for when she remarked, “Personal experiences and gender have a lot to do with judges’ decisions.” She was also, at one point, criticized for being racist when she made the comment saying, “I would hope a wise Latina woman with the richness of her experiences would more often than not reach a better conclusion than a white male who hasn’t lived that life.”
Ida B. Wells (July 16, 1862 – March 25, 1931)
Ida B. Wells was one of the founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). In the 1890s, Wells documented lynching in the United States, investigating frequent claims of whites that lynchings were reserved for black criminals only. Wells exposed lynching as a barbaric practice of whites in the South used to intimidate and oppress black people, who created economic and political competition and a subsequent threat of loss of power for whites. Subjected to continued threats, Wells left Memphis after a white mob destroyed her newspaper office and presses, and set fire to the building. The angry group promised that the editors would be lynched if they ever again set foot in Memphis. There were instructions to kill Wells on sight, and a gunman had been spotted at the station whenever a train from the North was due to arrive. Wells then remained in New York and accepted a job from Fortune and continued to expose lynchings.
Dr. Mae Jemison (October 17, 1956)
Dr. Mae Jemison holds nine honorary doctorates in science, engineering, letters, and the humanities. She has been a member of various scientific organizations, such as the American Medical Association, the American Chemical Society, the Association for Space Explorers and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Additionally, she served on the board of directors of the World Sickle Cell Foundation from 1990 to 1992. In 1993 Jemison founded her own company, the Jemison Group that researches, markets, and develops science and technology for daily life. One of the projects of Jemison's foundation is The Earth We Share (TEWS), an international science camp where students, ages 12 to 16, work to solve current global problems, like "How Many People Can the Earth Hold" and "Predict the Hot Public Stocks of The Year 2030." change.
Sylvia Mendez (June 7, 1936)
At age eight, Sylvia Mendez played an instrumental role in the Mendez v. Westminster case, the landmark desegregation case of 1946. The case successfully ended segregation in California and paved the way for integration and the American civil rights movement. In the case of California, Hispanics were not allowed to attend schools that were designated for "Whites" only and were sent to the so-called "Mexican schools." Mendez was denied enrollment to a "Whites" only school, an event which prompted her parents to take action and together organized various sectors of the Hispanic community who filed a lawsuit in the local federal court. The success of their action, of which Sylvia was the principal catalyst, would eventually bring to an end the era of segregated education. She was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor, on February 15, 2011.
Arturo Schomburg (January 24, 1874- June 10, 1938)
As a young boy in Puerto Rico, Arturo Schomburg was told that black people lacked culture or history. This was a comment that he would never forget. It contributed to Schomburg’s decision to devote his life to sourcing and collecting black history. It was in the United States, that Schomburg began to refer to himself as “Afroborinqueño” - Afro-Puerto Rican in English, because of his experiences with racial discrimination. . He advocated for Puerto Rican and Cuban independence from Spain, teach Spanish, and write scholarship about Caribbean and African-American history. Through his work for the Negro Society for Historical Research, co-founded with John Edward Bruce, Schomburg continued to write about the lives and struggles of black people in New York, the United States, and abroad. They appointed Schomburg curator of the Schomburg Collection of Negro Literature and Art, named in his honor, at the 135th Street Branch (Harlem) of the Library. It was later renamed the Arthur Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture.
Ruby Bridges (September 8, 1954)
After allowing schools to desegregate in Louisiana, the school district created entrance exams for African American students to see whether they could compete academically at the all-white school. Ruby Bridges and five other students passed the exam.She walked past crowds screaming vicious slurs at her. Undeterred, she later said she only became frightened when she saw a woman holding a black baby doll in a coffin. She spent her first day in the principal’s office due to the chaos created as angry white parents pulled their children from school. Many segregationists withdrew their children permanently. Barbara Henry, a white Boston native, was the only teacher willing to accept Ruby, and all year, she was a class of one. Ruby ate lunch alone and sometimes played with her teacher at recess, but she never missed a day of school that year. While some families supported her bravery—and some northerners sent money to aid her family—others protested throughout the city. The Bridges family suffered for their courage: her father lost his job, and grocery stores refused to sell to her family. Her share-cropping grandparents were evicted from the farm where they had lived for a quarter-century. Over time, other African American students enrolled; many years later, Ruby’s four nieces would also attend.
Marsha P Johnson (August 24, 1945- July 6, 1992)
Marsha P Johnson was an outspoken advocate for gay rights, and one of the prominent figures in the Stonewall uprising of 1969. The Stonewall Uprising was a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay (LGBT) community against a police raid in Greenwich Village. They are widely considered to constitute the most important event leading to the gay liberation movement. In June of 1970, Johnson helped organize the first of the GLF marches that took place in New York City. These marches grew and eventually became what we call Pride. Johnson was also a founding member of the Gay Liberation Front, and co-founded the gay and transvestite advocacy organization S.T.A.R. (Street Transvestite Action Revolutionaries). From 1987 through 1992, Johnson was an AIDS activist with ACT UP speaking against the inaccessibility of new HIV/AIDS medication. Johnson was a revolutionary black transwoman, sex worker, and drag queen, but was often overlooked and cast out of mainstream LGBTQ organizing because of her gender identity, race, HIV+ status, and occupation. During her lifetime, Johnson suffered many abuses in both her personal and professional lives for being a black transwoman. What is even more unfortunate is that Johnson’s sudden, ill-timed death at 46 years of age remains unsolved, showing how the mainstream LGBTQ movement prioritized some deaths but not all.
Septima Poinsette Clark (May 3, 1898 – December 15, 1987)
Septima Poinsette Clark is perhaps the only woman to play a significant role in educating African Americans for full citizenship rights without gaining sufficient recognition. Clark taught that “Literacy means liberation,” she stressed knowing that education was key to gaining political, economic, and social power. In 1956 when South Carolina banned membership in the NAACP, Clark lost her teaching job and pension when she refused to comply. Later with the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), Clark and her cousin Bernice Robinson created the first citizenship school to educate blacks in literacy, state government, and election procedures. Traveling throughout the South, Clark trained teachers for citizenship schools and assisted in SCLC marches and protests, working with Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and Andrew Young. Dr. King acknowledged Clark when he received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964 by insisting that she accompany him to Sweden.
Madam CJ Walker (December 23, 1867 – May 25, 1919)
Madam CJ Walker became one of the wealthiest self-made women in America and the wealthiest African-American woman in the country and one of the most successful women and African-American business owners ever. Walker made her fortune by developing and marketing a line of beauty and hair products for black women through Madame C.J. Walker Manufacturing Company. In addition to training in sales and grooming, Walker showed other black women how to budget, build their own businesses, and encouraged them to become financially independent. In 1917, Walker began organizing her sales agents into state and local clubs. The result was the establishment of the National Beauty Culturists and Benevolent Association of Madam C. J. Walker Agent. Its first annual conference convened in Philadelphia during the summer of 1917 with 200 attendees. The conference is believed to have been among the first national gatherings of women entrepreneurs to discuss business and commerce. By 1917, the company claimed to have trained nearly 20,000 women.
Christine Jorgensen (May 30, 1926 – May 3, 1989)
Christine Jorgensen became an instant celebrity, using the platform to advocate for transgender people. The significance of Jorgensen choosing this path was one of the first stages of transgender identity being legitimized and explored as a subject for both Jorgensen and the American public. Jorgensen’s highly publicized transition helped bring to light gender identity and shaped a new culture of more inclusive ideas and accepting notions about the subject. As a transgender spokesperson and public figure, Jorgensen influenced other transgender people to change their sex on birth certificates and to change their names. Jorgensen's case was also significant because, for the first time, it led to complications over sex and science and the changing definition of sexuality. Gender was thought of as a set binary (where one could only be male or female) that was permanent, but Jorgensen's case questioned that stability. Gender was not the set binary as people once thought of it, and doctors were redefining gender with the term "psychological sex". This new "psychological sex" showed that psychologically, one might not relate to one's biological sex.
Flo Kennedy (February 11, 1916 – December 21, 2000)
Flo Kennedy was one of the first black woman to graduate from Columbia Law School, where she was admitted after threatening a discrimination suit. Afterwards, during the late 1960s and 1970s, Flo Kennedy was the country’s most well-known Black feminist. She fought in the courts and on the streets against new York’s restrictive abortion rights, represented Black Panthers, was a founding member of the National Women's Political Caucus and led a mass urination by women protesting a lack of women's restrooms at Harvard. Kennedy was one of the few Black women in the women’s movement. Kennedy is a significant exemplar of the exclusion of key Black feminist organizers from most feminist scholarship on the movement: the erasure of her critical role speaks to the ways in which feminist literature has failed to see Black women as progenitors of contemporary feminism. She worked in predominantly white feminist organizations (such as NOW and the October 17th Movement) throughout the 1960s and 1970s and independent Black feminist organizations (such as the National Black Feminist Organization and Black Women United for Political Action) later in her life.
Bayard Rustin (March 17, 1912 – August 24, 1987)
Bayard Rustin was a leader in civil rights, gay rights, and socialism. He taught Martin Luther King Jr. about Gandhi's philosophy of nonviolent resistance and advised him on the tactics of civil disobedience. He was the main organizer of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. He created the first Freedom Rides, which challenged segregation on interstate buses. Along with King, Rustin was one of the founders of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. In 1953, Rustin's homosexuality became a public problem after he was found having sex in a parked car with two men. He was arrested on a morals charge. Later, when he was chosen to organize the 1963 march, some civil rights activists objected because of his sexuality. In an effort to discredit the march, segregationist Sen. Strom Thurmond took to the Senate floor, where he derided Rustin for being a communist, a draft dodger and a homosexual. Rustin was attacked as a "pervert" or "immoral influence" by people from both ends of the political spectrum, from segregationists to conservative black leaders from the 1950s through the 1970s. To stop these attacks, Rustin could only be an advisor rather than the public spokesperson. In the 1980s, he became a public advocate on behalf of gay and lesbian causes.
Junko Tabei (September 22, 1939- October 20, 2016)
For the everest expedition, she organized a group of women except Tabei had difficulty finding sponsors for the expedition because she was frequently told that the women should be raising children instead. Since they couldn’t fund the trip fully, to save money they would use recycled car seats to sew up waterproof pouches and over-gloves. They also purchased goose feather from China and made their own sleeping bags. On their trip, an avalanche hit them and the women and their guides were buried under the snow. Tabei lost consciousness for approximately six minutes until her sherpa guide dug her out. The other women didn’t make it to the top, but Twelve days after the avalanche, on 16 May 1975, with her sherpa guide, Ang Tsering, Tabei became the first woman to reach the summit of Everest.
Margaret Bourke- White (June 14, 1904- August 27, 1971)
In 1941, Margaret Bourke- White traveled to the Soviet Union and was the only foreign photographer in Moscow when German forces invaded. Taking refuge in the U.S. Embassy, she then captured the ensuing firestorms on camera. As the war progressed, she was attached to the U.S. Army Air Force in North Africa, then to the U.S. Army in Italy and later in Germany. She repeatedly came under fire in Italy in areas of fierce fighting.While crossing the Atlantic to North Africa, her transport ship was torpedoed and sunk, but Bourke-White survived.
Gwendolyn Brooks (June 7, 1917- December 3, 2000)
In 1968 she was named poet laureate for the state of Illinois. In 1985, she was the first black woman appointed as consultant in poetry to the Library of Congress, a post now known as Poet Laureate. She also received an American Academy of Arts and Letters Award, the Frost Medal, a National Endowment for the Arts Award, the Shelley Memorial Award, and fellowships from the Academy of American Poets and the Guggenheim Foundation. Many of Brooks’s works showed a political consciousness that reflected the civil rights activism of the time. Brooks managed to bridge the gap between the academic poets of her generation in the 1940s and the young Black militant writers of the 1960s.
Harvey Milk (May 22, 1930- November 27, 1978)
Harvey Milk was called the most famous and most significantly open LGBT official ever elected in the United States. During his time, Milk was the most pro-LGBT politician in the United States. Milk served almost eleven months in office and was responsible for passing a strict gay rights ordinance for San Francisco. Despite his short career in politics, Milk became an icon in San Francisco and a martyr in the gay community. Milk successfully pushed to get a law passed that would prohibit discrimination in housing and employment based on sexual orientation. He also pushed the city to hire more gay/lesbian police officers. In 1978, California State Senator John Briggs wrote a bill known as Proposition 6 or the Briggs Initiative to ban gay/lesbian teachers from teaching in California public schools and to fire anyone who supported gay rights. Milk campaigned against it and delivered his famous “Hope Speech” at the Gay Freedom Day Parade. 250,000-375,000 people came from all over the country and caught national attention. The proposition lost by more than a million votes. Milk ‘s political career was impactful, but was cut short after he was shot and killed in San Francisco City Hall by former Supervisor Dan White.
Dr. Rebecca Lee Crumpler (February 8, 1831 – March 9, 1895)
Dr. Rebecca Crumpler graduated medical college and published her medical book at a time in history when very few African Americans were allowed to attend medical college or publish books. Crumpler worked for the Freedmen's Bureau to provide medical care to freed slaves. She was subject to ]racism and sexism while practicing medicine. In 1883, she published A Book of Medical Discourses, dedicated to nurses and mothers. It was one of the first publications written by an African American about medicine.
Joan Little (1953)
Joan Little was the first woman in United States history to be acquitted using the defense that she used deadly force to resist sexual assault. In 1974, the body of jailer Clarence Alligood was found on Joan Little's bunk, naked from the waist down. Alligood had suffered stab wounds to the temple and the heart area from an icepick. Semen was discovered on his leg and Little was missing. She turned herself in to North Carolina authorities more than one week later, and said that she had killed Alligood while defending herself against sexual assault. She was charged with first degree murder, which carried an automatic death sentence. The defense commissioned surveys comparing popular attitudes among white people toward black people between Beaufort and Pitt Counties, in the state's northeast and north central area. The results showed that unfavorable racial stereotypes were more strongly held in Beaufort County. They believed that black women were lewder than white women and that black people were more violent than white people. They were then able to change the location of her trial. Her murder trial focused national attention on the issues of a woman's right to defend herself from rape, the validity of capital punishment, racial and sexual inequality in the criminal justice system, and the rights of prisoners in general. It also inspired women's rights movements abroad and politics of respectability.
Bobbi Gibb (November 2, 1942)
In 1966, the Amateur Athletic Union (AAU), the national ruling body on amateur sports at the time, limited women's races to 1.5 miles. The farthest women could run in the Olympics was 800 meters. Bobbi Gibb applied to run in the Boston Marathon and when the Boston Athletic Association rejected her application to run the Boston Marathon that year, she still showed up. She dressed in a black bathing suit, her brother's Bermuda shorts and boys' running shoes. She'd clipped her hair shorter than she usually wore it, pulled it back and covered her head with a blue hoodie. She hid in the bushes, and when half the pack went by, she stepped into the race and joined them. She finished ahead of no fewer than 290 of the event’s 415 starters.
Nellie Bly (May 5, 1864 – January 27, 1922)
Nellie Bly (May 5, 1864 – January 27, 1922) was a journalist from the New York World who investigated one of New York’s most notorious mental hospitals. After pretending to be mentally ill for 10 days, the New York World published Bly’s articles about her time in the insane asylum on Blackwell’s Island in a six-part series. She uncovered the cruel treatment of patients and it resulted in an $850,000 increase in the budget of the Department of Public Charities and Corrections. The grand jury also ensured that future examinations were more thorough such that only the seriously ill were committed to the asylum. Ten Days in a Mad-House quickly made Bly one of the most famous journalists in the United States. Furthermore, her hands-on approach to stories developed into a practice now called investigative journalism. Bly’s successful career reached new heights when she decided to travel around the world after reading the popular book Around the World in 80 Days. Her trip only took 72 days, which was a world record at the time.
Clara Barton (December 25, 1821 – April 12, 1912)
Clara Barton (December 25, 1821 – April 12, 1912) was the founder of the American Red Cross. During the Civil War, Clara Barton sought to help the soldiers in any way she could. At the beginning, she collected and distributed supplies for the Union Army. She also cared for wounded soldiers and was nicknamed "the angel of the battlefield" for her work. In 1873, she began work on this project. In 1878, she met with President Rutherford B. Hayes, who expressed the opinion of most Americans at that time which was the U.S. would never again face a calamity like the Civil War. Barton finally succeeded during the administration of President Chester Arthur, using the argument that the new American Red Cross could respond to crises other than war such as natural disasters like earthquakes, forest fires, and hurricanes.
Anna Pauline "Pauli" Murray (1910–1985)
Anna Pauline "Pauli" Murray (1910–1985) was an American civil rights activist who became a lawyer, a women's rights activist, Episcopal priest, and author. As a lawyer, Murray argued for civil rights and women's rights. At the front of the civil rights movement, alongside such leaders as Martin Luther King Jr. and Rosa Parks, but lesser known, was Pauli Murray, an outspoken woman who protested discrimination on the basis of race and sex. She coined the term Jane Crow, which demonstrated Murray's belief that Jim Crow laws also negatively affected African-American women. She was determined to work with other activists to put a halt to both racism and sexism. Murray served on the 1961–1963 Presidential Commission on the Status of Women, being appointed by John F. Kennedy. In 1966 she was a co-founder of the National Organization for Women. Murray's speech, "Jim Crow and Jane Crow", delivered in Washington, DC, in 1964, sheds light on the long struggle of African-American women for racial equality and their later fight for equality among the sexes. As she put it, "Not only have they stood ... with Negro men in every phase of the battle, but they have also continued to stand when their men were destroyed by it.” Murray continued her praise for black women when she stated that "...one cannot help asking: would the Negro struggle have come this far without the indomitable determination of its women?" In a letter to civil rights leader A. Philip Randolph, she criticized the fact that in the 1963 March on Washington no women were invited to make one of the major speeches or to be part of its delegation of leaders who went to the White House, among other grievances. Murray struggled with her sexual and gender identity through much of her life. Although acknowledging the term "homosexual" in describing others, Murray preferred to describe herself as having an "inverted sex instinct" that caused her to behave as a man attracted to women would. She wanted a "monogamous married life", but one in which she was the man.
Jose (Cha-Cha) Jimenez (born August 8, 1948)
Jose (Cha-Cha) Jimenez (born August 8, 1948), was one of seven founders of the Young Lords street gang and the founder of the Young Lords as a national human rights movement. He was from the Lincoln Park area of Chicago. It was mostly Hispanic and Puerto Ricans area called La Clark. When Mayor Richard J. Daley first took office in 1955, expanding downtown became his campaign program. Soon the residents of La Clark were relocated to expand downtown and the Gold Coast. The Jimenez family and an entire Latino neighborhood had their homes: over inspected, forcibly sold, and then bought out cheaply with many rental units in apartment buildings also demolished. Not long afterwards, these neighborhoods would themselves become urban renewed or urban removed and Puerto Ricans would be forced out again. The Young Lords started as a gang, but In the summer of 1968, Jimenez was picked up for possession of heroin and was given a 60-day sentence at Cook County Jail. It was in this jail experience mixed with gentrification that Cha-Cha Jiménez decided to turn himself around and to devote his life to the cause of human rights. He was determined to duplicate a Black Panther Party for self-defense within the Puerto Rican and Hispanic communities. Under his leadership, the Young Lords transformed into the Young Lords Organization. The group's mission was to fight for neighborhood empowerment and self-determination of Puerto Ricans and Latinx. Tactics used by the Young Lords included mass education, community programs, and direct confrontation. The Young Lords disrupted Lincoln Park Conservation Association meetings in Lincoln Park, confronted the real-estate brokers and landlords, created the Peoples Church and the Peoples Park, and forced the McCormick Theological Seminary to provide resources for the community. In response to the police killing of Manuel Ramos, they marched against police brutality, and contributed the seed money for the creation of the People's Law Office in Chicago. They opened branches in other locations such as New York, Philadelphia, Milwaukee, Oakland, etc.
Mamie Phipps Clark (April 18, 1917- August 11, 1983)
Mamie Phipps Clark (April 18, 1917- August 11, 1983) and her husband Kenneth Clark focused on studying the development of self-consciousness in young black children. Phipps Clark's famous doll study was a continuation of the work she did for her master's thesis. The experiment played a key role as evidence in the court challenge that led to the Supreme Court's Brown v. Board of Education decision in 1954, by proving that segregation caused psychological harm to children. The study used four dolls identical in all ways except color. It was administered to children ages 3–7. The following questions were asked:
1. "Show me the doll that you like the best or that you'd like to play with."
2. "Show me the doll that is the 'nice' doll."
3. "Show me the doll that looks 'bad.'"
4. "Give me the doll that looks like a white child."
5. "Give me the doll that looks like a colored child."
6. "Give me the doll that looks like a Negro child."
7. "Give me the doll that looks like you.
The experiment revealed a preference for the white doll for all of the questions and attributed positive attributes to the white dolls. The Clarks concluded that "prejudice, discrimination and segregation" caused black children to develop a sense of inferiority and self-hatred. Phipps Clark concluded, “If society says it is better to be White not only White people but Negroes come to believe it.” Phipps Clark continued and interviewed three hundred children from different parts of the county where schools were segregated and found the same results.